教學, Lessons

顫音和揉弦之迷 The Myth of Trill and Vibrato

初學古箏時,最先學到重和輕顫音。之後一直學,慢慢聽到不同的箏友和看到網路文章說「揉弦」。網路上對這兩者解釋都有分別。

有人說:「顫音的彈奏方法是:右手彈奏琴絃後,左手在琴碼左側相應琴絃上均勻地按、鬆琴絃,使右手所彈奏的音產生有規律的波動效果。揉弦你可以試一下不要在弦正上方用力。試着講你按弦的食,中,無名指微斜,然後掌握快慢和力度。」

有人說:「揉弦跟顫音都有音高的變化 區別也比較明顯 揉絃音高變化的幅度在小二度以內 就是音高變化很小 顫音最小都在小二度或以上這兩者的演奏法也不一樣 揉弦一個手指就可以解決 而顫音要兩個手指交替演奏。」

也有人說:「揉音其實就是顫音,顫音是很短暫的沒有間歇的顫,有點發抖的感覺,一般就是在曲子的快速花指上用。揉音是有次數的,一般是八次,中間的時差自己可以把握。顫音時間短,琴絃按的較輕,揉音有點回滑音的感覺。」

更有人說:「揉音是上下滑音的組合,左手揉按箏弦,做較大幅度的波動。」

感覺上沒有太統一的說法,有些更是頗有矛盾。大音琴行網上有一篇文章,個人不懂是否完全正確,但解釋比較合理,也沒有矛盾之處,我覺得是一篇解釋二者分別的頗好文章。其中很值得我們思考的是這裡:

「顫音」是對傳統「揉、吟」技法的總稱,這一稱呼約始於20世50年代。 傳統的「揉、吟」都是左手在箏碼左邊15厘米左右的弦段上,用食、中、無名三個手指(或中、無名兩指)並齊,稍彎曲成弧形,輕輕粘在右手所彈弦上,當右手彈弦後,左手在弦上作垂直的起伏按動,使右手彈奏出來的音產生有規律的波動效果。波動始終按「準」(弦本身的音準) 、「高」( 左手向下按動,弦的張力改變,弦音升高了的音高)不斷反覆有規律地進行。傳統的「揉、吟」僅以弦音的波動幅度大小作區別,大者爲「揉」,小者爲「吟」 「揉」和「吟」總的作用都是潤飾右手所彈的音和延長音波,以達到音樂風格的體現和音樂內容的表達。

從其性質和方法來看,都屬同一類,沒必要因按動的波動幅度大小分成兩類技法。 「揉」和「吟」技法名稱來源於古琴,古箏借用已有相當一段歷史。但古箏左手作韻與古琴作韻相差甚遠,古琴是左手以徽爲中心,用左、右分向爲運動的目標;而古箏的左手只能上、下起伏按動。古琴是以琴絃的長度分成若干個等份來取音;而古箏只能靠移碼或上下按動用力大小來取音。因此,古箏用「顫音」來代替「揉」、「吟」要準確一些 在對傳統「揉、吟」的分類上,箏界內有的分爲「顫、揉、吟」三種,也有的分爲「揉、吟」或「顫、揉」或「顫、吟」,也還有的統稱爲「揉弦」、「吟音」或「顫音」等等。

對於分類,出版的各種古箏教程和樂譜,由於地區不同,個人習慣不同,對「顫音」的解釋也不一致。在演奏中,左手的「揉、吟」常隨樂曲情感的不同變化和演奏者的不同,千變萬化,實難很準確地加以劃分成兩類技法。 綜上述所述,將「揉、吟」歸於「顫音」類技法,筆者認爲較爲合理。 

你又是否同意此筆者的說法呢?

文檔:古筝的颤音技法

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For those who play violin, I guess these two terms should be no strangers to you. In Guzheng, some players do pay attention to the differences between the two. If you can type and read Chinese, you will notice that many people have different definitions of trill and vibrato when playing Guzheng. Some say the difference is the level of vibration; some say the difference is the duration; some say they are essentially the same!

OK, from a western music point of view, the difference of the two could possibly be summarized like this:

  • Vibrato: A slight oscillation of pitch where there is the perception of a single pitch. Ideally it should be in the “center” of the oscillation frequencies. In music post 1900, it’s a somewhat pervasive feature of most concert voices and instruments. Pre 1900 it was not used as much; rather more as an ornament or effect.
  • Trill: an alternation of two adjacent pitches. Post 1800, it tends to be a rapidly executed ornament or decoration of a long note . Generally, pre-1800, it should always start on the upper (non harmonic) note; it tends to be relatively slow – depending on tempo – to highlight the non-harmonic upper note at the cadence, or wherever it occurs.

I am no expert and don’t have a definite answer to this question. However, I came across an article written by a musical store (that also teaches Guzheng). I think the way their article explains makes sense to me (at least from a Chinese musical instrument perspective). The article is written in Simplified Chinese. Some of the key points are:

  • Vibrato (揉弦) is a kind of Trill (OK, this could be quite different from traditional western music. So, please use an open mind to see this as we are now talking about Chinese music).
  • Vibrato refers to strong/heavy type of trill. So when playing a Guzheng, a player would need to apply more pressure.
  • In Guzheng, if we want to apply less pressure to a Trill, we normally call is a weak/light Trill.
  • The key here is that Trill in Guzheng can be categorized into different types. Some of the most commonly used are 1) heavy/strong, and 2) light/weak, depending on the pressure applied to a string.

I know it might not make much sense if you have been playing violin for years or if you have a strong western music background. If you have a different perspective, please feel free to share here!

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