教學, Lessons

淺談波音和顫音 Trill vs. Mordent

以前開始接觸古箏,最先學的是輕顫音和重顫音。這兩個概念當時還不自難理解:一個大力一點,一個細力一點。後來開始用不同的古箏書籍,發現書本和書本之間,指法有時有頗大的出入,有些書本的指法符號並未列出所有指法,令我有時不太肯定彈奏方法。我遇到最大的問題卞山是波音、顫音和揉弦。先不說揉弦。就顫音來說,原來都有不同種類,而「波音」我見過多次,但原來我一直把它當作重顫音的看待,實在慚愧……

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我今日在「流行古筝曲集」(北京日報出版)一書中看到以上的符號表,才突然知道我一直看到那個短短的、粗粗的、有點像W那個符號,原來叫作波音!在網上找,沒有很多有關波音的介紹,很多箏友都把它直接當作顫音。我後來找到一篇文章是介紹波音和顫音的分別,是一名叫「葫芦丝」的古箏演奏家。原文在此

波音和顫音都是修飾性技巧。波音和顫音的共同點都是本音與上方音的迅速交替演奏,最后落到本音上。而其不同之處是波音交替時間短,交替一到兩下,而顫音的交替時值要比波音長,一般要快速的多次交替。具體方法和效果請聽示範同時參照曲譜的解釋。

《波音》

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波音是由本音與上方二度音迅速地交替演奏 1-2 次形成的一種音波。波音雖然可以稍微吹的明顯一些,但決不能吹的很強、很生硬,不能使音波比本音還強還突出。手指要快放輕落,手指的動作應該一致。波音的速度同樣可快可慢,要根據樂曲的速度及音符的時值的長短再決定。先舉個例子,比如說有一個音2,單獨一個2奏出來就只有一個音。如果把單獨的2加上波音之后應該演奏成232。波音的演奏應該從它的本音出發,然後加一個它上邊的音然后再回來它本音,實際上演奏的過程中一共是三個音。

5的波音就是565

3的波音就是353

2的波音就是232

1的波音就是121

7的波音就是717

6的波音就是676

波音練習的技巧

波音是由兩個不同音高的音作快速交替而發出的音響,實際應用中可分為順波音,逆波音兩種。適當使用波音,使樂曲更加生動。

順波音的技法:

  1. 本音發出後,迅速開閉其上方二度音,也可開閉上方的三度四度音,開閉的周期為1~2次。
  2. 波音完成時,必須結束在本音上。
  3. 演奏波音時,按指要放鬆,開閉孔要迅速,按指要富有彈性。

逆波音技法:

  1. 本音發出後,迅速開閉其下方的二度音,也可開閉下方的三度四度音,開閉的周期為1~2次。
  2. 波音完成時,必須結束在本音上。
  3. 演奏波音時,按指要放鬆,開閉孔要迅速,按指要富有彈性。

《顫音》

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換句話說,我的結論是波音其實是一個短顫音。它們的基本原理是一樣的,而最大的分別就是長間的長短。

***

Trill and Mordent – two very interesting terms, but I often mix them up. Whenever I use the short line (similar to a “w” see figure below), I often thought that it has no difference from a trill.

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But today, I finally learned that this technique is actually called “Mordent”, which is also an ornament just like Trills. The mordent is thought of as a rapid single alternation between an indicated note, the note above (the upper mordent) or below (the lower mordent) and the indicated note again.

So what’s the difference between trill and mordent? According to LivingPianos.com, “The secret to a mordent is you add the note below and then go back to the note that’s written so when you have a B you’re going to play B-A-B. So what’s different about trills? Trills start on the upper note. Typically trills can have more than one or two notes and this is for freedom of expression.” 

[youtube https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RM1Kzb1tmHQ]

I know this could sound confusing. LivingPianos.com also explains, “Interestingly, different performers have different ideas about what these squiggly lines, turns and all this means because we don’t really know what people played hundreds of years ago.” So, sometimes, it actually depends on how a performer interprets the symbols.

When I googled online, I found a Guzheng performer who provided her own interpretation. Basically, the main difference is the duration. Mordent, to her, is shorter. For example, to play a mordent for “5” (i.e. “sol”), one would play “565” (i.e. “sol, la, sol”). To play a trill for “5”, one would play “565656” or even longer. A trill can lengthen the lingering sound. Do you agree with her interpretation? Would her interpretation be sufficient for Guzheng players to understand trills and mordents?

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