教學, Lessons, 樂理, Theory

新手音階認識 Music Scale for Dummies

音階這個東西,我爬文看影片多時都不能理解。我就是一個音樂天分零蛋的人……初看調音機,上面不是寫dol, re, mi, fa, sol, 而是A, B, C, D, E,有時會有奇怪的#號,如A#, B#, C#,一頭霚水,究竟個dol在哪裡?最近看了Keith Sir的講解,再配合一些網上的資料,我開始有點頭緒。

在音樂世界裡,由七個字母的排列的音名(Key),是從C開始的,依次為C、D、E、F、G、A、B。如果在鋼琴上看,就是白色那些琴鍵,而黑色的琴鍵是用來做升降的,如C#就是C比高音但比D音低。要知道的是C和D、D和E……很多白色琴鍵中間都會有一個黑琴鍵,所以C和D之間的黑琴鍵既可叫C#,又可叫Db。(注:那個細b是叫做「Flat」意思是降下。Db即是低過D,但是高過C。「#」是讀Sharp。) 如果我們看看鋼琴,有些白色琴鍵之間沒有黑色琴色,例如E和F之間,B和C之間,因此是沒E#、Fb、B#、Cb。

古箏入門最常用是D大調(D Major),其實是指以D開始做dol,一直數上去!(注:G Major 則以G開始做dol。)我們用dol、re、mi、fa、sol、la、si來唱出樂譜上的音,這叫唱名。音名與唱名既有聯繫,又具有不同的用途。

notes你有否聽過「全、全、半、全、全、全、半」?其實這是用於找出所有大調的音。如果以D大調為例,dol是D

  • 第一個是「全」,即是2個琴鍵,也就是re應該是E
  • 第二個是「全」,即是2個琴鍵,也就是mi應該是F#
  • 第三個是「半」,即是1個琴鍵,也就是fa應該是G
  • 第四個是「全」,即是2個琴鍵,也就是sol應該是A
  • 第五個是「全」,即是2個琴鍵,也就是la應該是B
  • 第六個是「全」,即是2個琴鍵,也就是si應該是C#
  • 第七個是「半」,即是1個琴鍵,也就是dol應該是D。大功告成!

而古箏是以五聲調式,五聲即:宮、商、角、徵、羽,即是dol (D), re (E), mi (F#), sol (A), la (B)。音與音之間最小的距離叫半音(即是上面的「半」),兩個半音構成一個全音。由上面可見,由mi 到fa、 由si 到 dol都是半音,所以當我們看古箏簡譜時,記得,7、1之間及3、4之間是半音啦!補充一句,看五線譜時,如果譜的開始有2個#,我們便知道是D大調,因為D大調中有2個別 (F#、C#)。

***

Music notes, scales, majors…etc. often give me a lot of headache. I spent a lot of time on watching videos and reading materials online; however, I still fail to understand this stuff. When I first looked at my tuner, I saw A, B, C, D, E, F, A#, B#, C#… I was like: “What are these? Where is my dol, re, mi, fa, sol?” Recently, I watched the videos from Keith Sir; his explanation was great. I do feel like I understand this stuff a bit more.

In the world of music, there are seven basic letters, in sequence: C, D, E, F, G, A, B. If you look at a piano or a keyboard, these are those white keys. The black keys are for up and down the pitch. For instance, C# is slightly higher than C but lower than D. Many white keys have a black key in between. For example, the black key between C and D can be called either C# or Db. (Notes: the little ‘b’ is called ‘Flat’. The ‘#’ is called ‘Sharp’. A sharp means a key is lower. Db means it is lower than D but above C.) If we look at a piano, some keys don’t have a black key in between. For example, between E and F, between B and C, there is no black key. Therefore, there is no E#, Fb, B#, Cb.

Guzheng beginners often start with D Major. This actually means that we use D as dol. (So for G Major, we use G as dol.)

Now the other thing to remember is “whole, whole, half, whole, whole, whole, half”. What is this strange sequence? This is actually the sequence for finding out the notes of a major scale. Take D Major as an example, we start with D, which is dol.

  • The first is “full”, which means two keys on a piano. This means re corresponds to E.
  • The second is “full”, which means two keys on a piano. This means mi corresponds to F#.
  • The third is “half”, which means one key on a piano. This means fa corresponds to G.
  • The fourth is “full”, which means two keys on a piano. This means sol corresponds to A.
  • The fifth is “full”, which means two keys on a piano. This means la corresponds to B.
  • The sixth is “full”, which means two keys on a piano. This means si corresponds to C#.
  • The seventh is “half”, which means one key on a piano. This means dol corresponds to D. All done!

For Guzheng, we use pentatonic, which has dol, re, mi, sol, la. It is important to remember that when you read Guzheng sheet music, 7 (si) and 1 (dol), and 3 (mi) and 4 (fa) are only “half”. Last but not least, when you read a standard piano music sheet, if you see two #s at the beginning, then we know it is a D Major. This is because D Major has two #s (F# and D#).

發佈留言

發佈留言必須填寫的電子郵件地址不會公開。 必填欄位標示為 *